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Full text of "Rapid Population Growth Consequences And Policy Implications"

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process and schooling. (See Figure 1.) The nurture and schooling processes have economic consequences which in their turn alter the economic state of the system and may alter some of the demographic causative variables. The system can be viewed, in part, as an internally self-generating system. That is, it is a system in which individuals at any time not only transmit their genetic fertility and mortality potentialities in a systematic way to subsequent generations but also transmit certain social, cultural, and physical characteristics. However, it is not a completely self-contained system since part of the economic changes—probably the greater part—are determined outside the demographic system and are, from the point of view of the demographic system, an autonomous set of influences.
Autonomous                                          .,                                                Autonomous
Demographic Effects                         ^,^- u,                                       Economic Inputs
I                                           x' Variables \^                                       I
Economic State—•-Demographic Effects                  I                   Population Quality—"-Economic Change
^XSchooling / Variables
Figure 1. The impact of demographic variables on the economic state of the system.
Now, we delineate what may be viewed as a set of demographic causative effects:
1.  the age-structure-dependency effect; this effect has been analyzed in detail by Coale and Hoover (9);
2.  the sib-number effect which considers the consequences of the number of children per family;
3.  the sib-spacing effect;
4.  the parental-mortality effect which considers the effects of the possibility of one or both parents being absent during the nurture or schooling period;
5.  the replacement effect. *
All but one of these listed effects of a greater rather than a lesser rate of population growth are detrimental to the acquired economic quality of the labor force. The main idea is that the quality of the labor force depends (in part) on the growth rate of labor, which in turn depends on the growth rate of the population. The relation between the quality of an input and its
*A fairly complete list of demographic effects would also include:
6.  the population-resource ratio effect 1. the congestion effect
Both arc likely consequences of population growth. However, these matters will not be treated in this paper.me there are a set of demographic characteristics which affect various aspects of the nurture